OpenJPA

OpenJPA Performance Summary

The following charts show the performance of OpenJPA (in green) relatively to other JPA/DBMS combinations (in gray).

Position #1 on the X-Axis (the fastest) is about 100 times faster than position #32 (the slowest).
In the chart below the Y-Axis represents result score (maximum 100) in logarithmic scale - higher is better:
JPA performance benchmark comparision Hibernate, EclipseLink, OpenJPA, DataNucleus, ObjectDB
In the chart below the Y-Axis represents result score (maximum 100) in linear scale - higher is better:
JPA performance benchmark comparision Hibernate, EclipseLink, OpenJPA, DataNucleus, ObjectDB


The configurations in which OpenJPA has been tested are listed in the following table:

 Database + JPA ProviderNormalized Score
100 - Best,  0 - Worst
Final Position
1 - Best,  32 - Worst
Failed Tests
1OpenJPA with Derby embedded11.17  (out of 32)0
2OpenJPA with H2 embedded10.111  (out of 32)0
3OpenJPA with PostgreSQL server10.013  (out of 32)0
4OpenJPA with HSQLDB embedded8.414  (out of 32)0
5OpenJPA with MySQL server6.616  (out of 32)0
6OpenJPA with Derby server4.823  (out of 32)0
7OpenJPA with H2 server3.028  (out of 32)0

About OpenJPA

OpenJPA is a JPA object-relational mapping library developed by Apache. It was first released in 2007. It is based on code contribution from BEA Systems of its Kodo ORM library, which was developed by SolarMetric since 2001 and was acquired by BEA Systems in 2005.

OpenJPA is available under the Apache open source license.

In this benchmark OpenJPA 2.1.0 snapshot (which was released in 2010) has been tested.

OpenJPA Performance Tuning

The OpenJPA default configuration is far from being optimized. To get the best possible performance out of OpenJPA we followed instructions from OpenJPA Experts and applied the following optimizations:

  • A connection pool was enabled.
  • Database schema generation was completed before time measurement started.
  • The openjpa.DataCache property was set to true.
  • The openjpa.jdbc.DBDictionary property was set to batchLimit=100.
  • The openjpa.ConnectionRetainMode property was set to always.

All the entity classes have been enhanced by OpenJPA, by running the tests with a Java Agent.

Class enhancement time was completely excluded from the test time measurement.

Solved Problems and Issues

The stack traces below demonstrate some exceptions that have been thrown when using OpenJPA in previous runs of this benchmark and have been fixed by upgrading software and setting.

org.apache.openjpa.persistence.RollbackException: The statement was aborted because it would have caused a duplicate key value in a unique or primary key constraint or unique index identified by 'SQL100909081912210' defined on 'OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE'. {prepstmnt 24401596 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=30000, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:583)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:216)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:199)
	at org.jpab.Runner$PersistAction.run0(Runner.java:528)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:507)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by:  org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityExistsException: The statement was aborted because it would have caused a duplicate key value in a unique or primary key constraint or unique index identified by 'SQL100909081912210' defined on 'OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE'. {prepstmnt 24401596 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=30000, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.narrow(DBDictionary.java:4812)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.newStoreException(DBDictionary.java:4787)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:136)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:110)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:62)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractJDBCSeq.next(AbstractJDBCSeq.java:66)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ImplHelper.generateValue(ImplHelper.java:160)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ImplHelper.generateFieldValue(ImplHelper.java:144)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.assignField(JDBCStoreManager.java:794)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ApplicationIds.assign(ApplicationIds.java:487)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ApplicationIds.assign(ApplicationIds.java:463)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.assignObjectId(JDBCStoreManager.java:778)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingStoreManager.assignObjectId(DelegatingStoreManager.java:135)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.assignObjectId(StateManagerImpl.java:605)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.preFlush(StateManagerImpl.java:2952)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.PNewState.beforeFlush(PNewState.java:40)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.beforeFlush(StateManagerImpl.java:1047)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flush(BrokerImpl.java:2077)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flushSafe(BrokerImpl.java:2037)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.beforeCompletion(BrokerImpl.java:1955)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.LocalManagedRuntime.commit(LocalManagedRuntime.java:81)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.commit(BrokerImpl.java:1479)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBroker.commit(DelegatingBroker.java:925)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:559)
	... 5 more
Caused by: org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.ReportingSQLException: The statement was aborted because it would have caused a duplicate key value in a unique or primary key constraint or unique index identified by 'SQL100909081912210' defined on 'OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE'. {prepstmnt 24401596 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=30000, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:257)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:233)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.access$1000(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:70)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator$LoggingConnection$LoggingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:1079)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(DelegatingPreparedStatement.java:285)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.executeUpdate(TableJDBCSeq.java:816)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.insertSequence(TableJDBCSeq.java:501)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.access$100(TableJDBCSeq.java:74)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq$AllocateSequenceRunnable.run(TableJDBCSeq.java:902)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.allocateSequence(TableJDBCSeq.java:454)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.nextInternal(TableJDBCSeq.java:305)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractJDBCSeq.next(AbstractJDBCSeq.java:60)
	... 23 more
org.apache.openjpa.persistence.RollbackException: Unique index or primary key violation: "PRIMARY_KEY_2C ON PUBLIC.OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE(ID)"; SQL statement:
INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [23001-141] {prepstmnt 28057122 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=23001, state=23001]
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:583)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:216)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:199)
	at org.jpab.Runner$PersistAction.run0(Runner.java:528)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:507)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by:  org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityExistsException: Unique index or primary key violation: "PRIMARY_KEY_2C ON PUBLIC.OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE(ID)"; SQL statement:
INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [23001-141] {prepstmnt 28057122 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=23001, state=23001]
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.narrow(DBDictionary.java:4812)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.newStoreException(DBDictionary.java:4787)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:136)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:110)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:62)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractJDBCSeq.next(AbstractJDBCSeq.java:66)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ImplHelper.generateValue(ImplHelper.java:160)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ImplHelper.generateFieldValue(ImplHelper.java:144)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.assignField(JDBCStoreManager.java:794)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ApplicationIds.assign(ApplicationIds.java:487)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ApplicationIds.assign(ApplicationIds.java:463)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.assignObjectId(JDBCStoreManager.java:778)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingStoreManager.assignObjectId(DelegatingStoreManager.java:135)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.assignObjectId(StateManagerImpl.java:605)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.preFlush(StateManagerImpl.java:2952)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.PNewState.beforeFlush(PNewState.java:40)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.beforeFlush(StateManagerImpl.java:1047)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flush(BrokerImpl.java:2077)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flushSafe(BrokerImpl.java:2037)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.beforeCompletion(BrokerImpl.java:1955)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.LocalManagedRuntime.commit(LocalManagedRuntime.java:81)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.commit(BrokerImpl.java:1479)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBroker.commit(DelegatingBroker.java:925)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:559)
	... 5 more
Caused by: org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.ReportingSQLException: Unique index or primary key violation: "PRIMARY_KEY_2C ON PUBLIC.OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE(ID)"; SQL statement:
INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [23001-141] {prepstmnt 28057122 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=23001, state=23001]
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:257)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:233)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.access$1000(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:70)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator$LoggingConnection$LoggingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:1079)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(DelegatingPreparedStatement.java:285)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.executeUpdate(TableJDBCSeq.java:816)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.insertSequence(TableJDBCSeq.java:501)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.access$100(TableJDBCSeq.java:74)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq$AllocateSequenceRunnable.run(TableJDBCSeq.java:902)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.allocateSequence(TableJDBCSeq.java:454)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.nextInternal(TableJDBCSeq.java:305)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractJDBCSeq.next(AbstractJDBCSeq.java:60)
	... 23 more
 org.apache.openjpa.persistence.RollbackException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:583)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:216)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:199)
	at org.jpab.Runner$PersistAction.run0(Runner.java:528)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:507)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by:  org.apache.openjpa.persistence.PersistenceException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.narrow(DBDictionary.java:4827)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.newStoreException(DBDictionary.java:4787)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:136)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:110)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:62)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.connect(JDBCStoreManager.java:987)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.retainConnection(JDBCStoreManager.java:272)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingStoreManager.retainConnection(DelegatingStoreManager.java:164)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.retainConnection(BrokerImpl.java:3914)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.beginStoreManagerTransaction(BrokerImpl.java:1395)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flush(BrokerImpl.java:2097)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flushSafe(BrokerImpl.java:2037)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.beforeCompletion(BrokerImpl.java:1955)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.LocalManagedRuntime.commit(LocalManagedRuntime.java:81)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.commit(BrokerImpl.java:1479)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBroker.commit(DelegatingBroker.java:925)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:559)
	... 5 more
Caused by: java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.SQLExceptionFactory40.getSQLException(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.SqlException.getSQLException(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.jdbc.ClientDriver.connect(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:96)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:91)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingDataSource.getConnection(DelegatingDataSource.java:139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DecoratingDataSource.getConnection(DecoratingDataSource.java:112)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingDataSource.getConnection(DelegatingDataSource.java:139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory$DefaultsDataSource.getConnection(DataSourceFactory.java:325)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.connectInternal(JDBCStoreManager.java:998)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.connect(JDBCStoreManager.java:983)
	... 16 more
Caused by: org.apache.derby.client.am.DisconnectException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetAgent.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection.newAgent_(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.Connection.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection40.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.ClientJDBCObjectFactoryImpl40.newNetConnection(Unknown Source)
	... 25 more
Caused by: java.net.BindException: Address already in use: connect
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.socketConnect(Native Method)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.doConnect(PlainSocketImpl.java:333)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connectToAddress(PlainSocketImpl.java:195)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connect(PlainSocketImpl.java:182)
	at java.net.SocksSocketImpl.connect(SocksSocketImpl.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:519)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:469)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:180)
	at javax.net.DefaultSocketFactory.createSocket(SocketFactory.java:196)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.OpenSocketAction.run(Unknown Source)
	at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
	... 31 more
org.apache.openjpa.persistence.PersistenceException: There were errors initializing your configuration:  org.apache.openjpa.util.UserException: A connection could not be obtained for driver class "org.apache.derby.jdbc.ClientDriver" and URL "jdbc:derby://localhost:1527/jpb/jpab4080130527;create=true".  You may have specified an invalid URL.
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory.newConnectException(DataSourceFactory.java:261)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory.installDBDictionary(DataSourceFactory.java:247)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.conf.JDBCConfigurationImpl.getConnectionFactory(JDBCConfigurationImpl.java:725)
	at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
	at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.conf.ConfigurationImpl.instantiateAll(ConfigurationImpl.java:294)
	at org.apache.openjpa.conf.OpenJPAConfigurationImpl.instantiateAll(OpenJPAConfigurationImpl.java:1602)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.makeReadOnly(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:634)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.newBroker(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:193)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBrokerFactory.newBroker(DelegatingBrokerFactory.java:156)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:213)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:151)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:57)
	at org.jpab.Runner.handleAction(Runner.java:292)
	at org.jpab.Runner.run(Runner.java:249)
	at org.jpab.Runner.main(Runner.java:78)
Caused by: java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.SQLExceptionFactory40.getSQLException(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.SqlException.getSQLException(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.jdbc.ClientDriver.connect(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:96)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:91)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingDataSource.getConnection(DelegatingDataSource.java:139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DecoratingDataSource.getConnection(DecoratingDataSource.java:112)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory.installDBDictionary(DataSourceFactory.java:239)
	... 16 more
Caused by: org.apache.derby.client.am.DisconnectException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetAgent.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection.newAgent_(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.Connection.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection40.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.ClientJDBCObjectFactoryImpl40.newNetConnection(Unknown Source)
	... 22 more
Caused by: java.net.BindException: Address already in use: connect
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.socketConnect(Native Method)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.doConnect(PlainSocketImpl.java:333)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connectToAddress(PlainSocketImpl.java:195)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connect(PlainSocketImpl.java:182)
	at java.net.SocksSocketImpl.connect(SocksSocketImpl.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:519)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:469)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:180)
	at javax.net.DefaultSocketFactory.createSocket(SocketFactory.java:196)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.OpenSocketAction.run(Unknown Source)
	at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
	... 28 more

	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.newBroker(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:208)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBrokerFactory.newBroker(DelegatingBrokerFactory.java:156)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:213)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:151)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:57)
	at org.jpab.Runner.handleAction(Runner.java:292)
	at org.jpab.Runner.run(Runner.java:249)
	at org.jpab.Runner.main(Runner.java:78)
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: There were errors initializing your configuration:  org.apache.openjpa.util.UserException: A connection could not be obtained for driver class "org.apache.derby.jdbc.ClientDriver" and URL "jdbc:derby://localhost:1527/jpb/jpab4080130527;create=true".  You may have specified an invalid URL.
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory.newConnectException(DataSourceFactory.java:261)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory.installDBDictionary(DataSourceFactory.java:247)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.conf.JDBCConfigurationImpl.getConnectionFactory(JDBCConfigurationImpl.java:725)
	at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
	at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.conf.ConfigurationImpl.instantiateAll(ConfigurationImpl.java:294)
	at org.apache.openjpa.conf.OpenJPAConfigurationImpl.instantiateAll(OpenJPAConfigurationImpl.java:1602)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.makeReadOnly(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:634)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.newBroker(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:193)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBrokerFactory.newBroker(DelegatingBrokerFactory.java:156)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:213)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:151)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerFactoryImpl.createEntityManager(EntityManagerFactoryImpl.java:57)
	at org.jpab.Runner.handleAction(Runner.java:292)
	at org.jpab.Runner.run(Runner.java:249)
	at org.jpab.Runner.main(Runner.java:78)
Caused by: java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.SQLExceptionFactory40.getSQLException(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.SqlException.getSQLException(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.jdbc.ClientDriver.connect(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:96)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:91)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingDataSource.getConnection(DelegatingDataSource.java:139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DecoratingDataSource.getConnection(DecoratingDataSource.java:112)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory.installDBDictionary(DataSourceFactory.java:239)
	... 16 more
Caused by: org.apache.derby.client.am.DisconnectException: java.net.BindException : Error connecting to server localhost on port 1527 with message Address already in use: connect.
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetAgent.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection.newAgent_(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.am.Connection.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.NetConnection40.(Unknown Source)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.ClientJDBCObjectFactoryImpl40.newNetConnection(Unknown Source)
	... 22 more
Caused by: java.net.BindException: Address already in use: connect
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.socketConnect(Native Method)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.doConnect(PlainSocketImpl.java:333)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connectToAddress(PlainSocketImpl.java:195)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connect(PlainSocketImpl.java:182)
	at java.net.SocksSocketImpl.connect(SocksSocketImpl.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:519)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:469)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:180)
	at javax.net.DefaultSocketFactory.createSocket(SocketFactory.java:196)
	at org.apache.derby.client.net.OpenSocketAction.run(Unknown Source)
	at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)
	... 28 more

	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.conf.ConfigurationImpl.instantiateAll(ConfigurationImpl.java:308)
	at org.apache.openjpa.conf.OpenJPAConfigurationImpl.instantiateAll(OpenJPAConfigurationImpl.java:1602)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.makeReadOnly(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:634)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.AbstractBrokerFactory.newBroker(AbstractBrokerFactory.java:193)
	... 7 more
org.apache.openjpa.persistence.RollbackException: integrity constraint violation: unique constraint or index violation; SYS_PK_10037 table: OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE {prepstmnt 25139768 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=-104, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:583)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:216)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:199)
	at org.jpab.Runner$PersistAction.run0(Runner.java:528)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:507)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by:  org.apache.openjpa.persistence.PersistenceException: integrity constraint violation: unique constraint or index violation; SYS_PK_10037 table: OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE {prepstmnt 25139768 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=-104, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.narrow(DBDictionary.java:4827)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.newStoreException(DBDictionary.java:4787)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.HSQLDictionary.newStoreException(HSQLDictionary.java:318)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:136)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:110)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:62)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractJDBCSeq.next(AbstractJDBCSeq.java:66)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ImplHelper.generateValue(ImplHelper.java:160)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ImplHelper.generateFieldValue(ImplHelper.java:144)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.assignField(JDBCStoreManager.java:794)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ApplicationIds.assign(ApplicationIds.java:487)
	at org.apache.openjpa.util.ApplicationIds.assign(ApplicationIds.java:463)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.assignObjectId(JDBCStoreManager.java:778)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingStoreManager.assignObjectId(DelegatingStoreManager.java:135)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.assignObjectId(StateManagerImpl.java:605)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.preFlush(StateManagerImpl.java:2952)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.PNewState.beforeFlush(PNewState.java:40)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.StateManagerImpl.beforeFlush(StateManagerImpl.java:1047)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flush(BrokerImpl.java:2077)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flushSafe(BrokerImpl.java:2037)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.beforeCompletion(BrokerImpl.java:1955)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.LocalManagedRuntime.commit(LocalManagedRuntime.java:81)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.commit(BrokerImpl.java:1479)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBroker.commit(DelegatingBroker.java:925)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:559)
	... 5 more
Caused by: org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.ReportingSQLException: integrity constraint violation: unique constraint or index violation; SYS_PK_10037 table: OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE {prepstmnt 25139768 INSERT INTO OPENJPA_SEQUENCES_TABLE (ID, SEQUENCE_VALUE) VALUES (?, ?) [params=(String) DEFAULT, (int) 0]} [code=-104, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:257)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:233)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.access$1000(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:70)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator$LoggingConnection$LoggingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:1079)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(DelegatingPreparedStatement.java:285)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.executeUpdate(TableJDBCSeq.java:816)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.insertSequence(TableJDBCSeq.java:501)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.access$100(TableJDBCSeq.java:74)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq$AllocateSequenceRunnable.run(TableJDBCSeq.java:902)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.allocateSequence(TableJDBCSeq.java:454)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.TableJDBCSeq.nextInternal(TableJDBCSeq.java:305)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractJDBCSeq.next(AbstractJDBCSeq.java:60)
	... 23 more
org.apache.openjpa.persistence.ArgumentException: Failed to execute query "SELECT o FROM Person o WHERE o.lastName LIKE :pattern". Check the query syntax for correctness. See nested exception for details.
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:870)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:792)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingQuery.execute(DelegatingQuery.java:542)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:288)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.QueryImpl.getResultList(QueryImpl.java:302)
	at org.jpab.Test.query(Test.java:314)
	at org.jpab.Runner$QueryAction.run0(Runner.java:552)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:507)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by: java.lang.ClassCastException: java.lang.String cannot be cast to java.lang.Integer
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.PreparedSQLStoreQuery$PreparedSQLExecutor.toParameterArray(PreparedSQLStoreQuery.java:157)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:855)
	... 8 more
org.apache.openjpa.persistence.PersistenceException: Communications link failure

Last packet sent to the server was 0 ms ago.
FailedObject: SELECT o FROM Person o WHERE o.id >= :firstId [java.lang.String]
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.narrow(DBDictionary.java:4827)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.newStoreException(DBDictionary.java:4787)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:136)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:110)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:62)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.connect(JDBCStoreManager.java:987)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.getConnection(JDBCStoreManager.java:286)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SelectImpl.execute(SelectImpl.java:385)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SelectImpl.execute(SelectImpl.java:354)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.SelectResultObjectProvider.open(SelectResultObjectProvider.java:94)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.rop.EagerResultList.(EagerResultList.java:34)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.toResult(QueryImpl.java:1246)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:1005)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:861)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:792)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingQuery.execute(DelegatingQuery.java:542)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.QueryImpl.execute(QueryImpl.java:288)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.QueryImpl.getResultList(QueryImpl.java:302)
	at org.jpab.Test.retireveEntities(Test.java:383)
	at org.jpab.Test.doAction(Test.java:250)
	at org.jpab.Runner$RetrieveAction.run0(Runner.java:540)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:507)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by: com.mysql.jdbc.exceptions.jdbc4.CommunicationsException: Communications link failure

Last packet sent to the server was 0 ms ago.
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:39)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:27)
	at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:513)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.Util.handleNewInstance(Util.java:406)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.SQLError.createCommunicationsException(SQLError.java:1074)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.ConnectionImpl.createNewIO(ConnectionImpl.java:2120)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.ConnectionImpl.(ConnectionImpl.java:723)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.JDBC4Connection.(JDBC4Connection.java:46)
	at sun.reflect.GeneratedConstructorAccessor15.newInstance(Unknown Source)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:27)
	at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:513)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.Util.handleNewInstance(Util.java:406)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.ConnectionImpl.getInstance(ConnectionImpl.java:302)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.NonRegisteringDriver.connect(NonRegisteringDriver.java:282)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:96)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.SimpleDriverDataSource.getConnection(SimpleDriverDataSource.java:91)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingDataSource.getConnection(DelegatingDataSource.java:139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DecoratingDataSource.getConnection(DecoratingDataSource.java:112)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingDataSource.getConnection(DelegatingDataSource.java:139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.schema.DataSourceFactory$DefaultsDataSource.getConnection(DataSourceFactory.java:325)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.connectInternal(JDBCStoreManager.java:998)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.connect(JDBCStoreManager.java:983)
	... 17 more
Caused by: com.mysql.jdbc.exceptions.jdbc4.CommunicationsException: The driver was unable to create a connection due to an inability to establish the client portion of a socket.

This is usually caused by a limit on the number of sockets imposed by the operating system. This limit is usually configurable. 

For Unix-based platforms, see the manual page for the 'ulimit' command. Kernel or system reconfiguration may also be required.

For Windows-based platforms, see Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 196271 (Q196271).
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
	at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:39)
	at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:27)
	at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:513)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.Util.handleNewInstance(Util.java:406)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.SQLError.createCommunicationsException(SQLError.java:1074)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlIO.(MysqlIO.java:335)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.ConnectionImpl.createNewIO(ConnectionImpl.java:2043)
	... 33 more
Caused by: java.net.BindException: Address already in use: connect
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.socketConnect(Native Method)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.doConnect(PlainSocketImpl.java:333)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connectToAddress(PlainSocketImpl.java:195)
	at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.connect(PlainSocketImpl.java:182)
	at java.net.SocksSocketImpl.connect(SocksSocketImpl.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:519)
	at java.net.Socket.connect(Socket.java:469)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:366)
	at java.net.Socket.(Socket.java:209)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.StandardSocketFactory.connect(StandardSocketFactory.java:253)
	at com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlIO.(MysqlIO.java:284)
	... 34 more
 org.apache.openjpa.persistence.RollbackException: The transaction has been rolled back.  See the nested exceptions for details on the errors that occurred.
FailedObject: org.jpab.node.Node@3a0ab1
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:583)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:216)
	at org.jpab.Test.persist(Test.java:199)
	at org.jpab.Runner$PersistAction.run0(Runner.java:530)
	at org.jpab.Runner$TestAction.run(Runner.java:509)
	at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:619)
Caused by:  org.apache.openjpa.persistence.PersistenceException: The transaction has been rolled back.  See the nested exceptions for details on the errors that occurred.
FailedObject: org.jpab.node.Node@3a0ab1
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.newFlushException(BrokerImpl.java:2302)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flush(BrokerImpl.java:2139)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.flushSafe(BrokerImpl.java:2037)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.beforeCompletion(BrokerImpl.java:1955)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.LocalManagedRuntime.commit(LocalManagedRuntime.java:81)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.BrokerImpl.commit(BrokerImpl.java:1479)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingBroker.commit(DelegatingBroker.java:925)
	at org.apache.openjpa.persistence.EntityManagerImpl.commit(EntityManagerImpl.java:559)
	... 5 more
Caused by:  org.apache.openjpa.persistence.PersistenceException: ERROR: duplicate key value violates unique constraint "node_pkey" {prepstmnt 25150543 INSERT INTO Node (id, changeCount, CHILD1_ID, CHILD2_ID) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?) [params=(int) 110001, (int) 0, (int) 110002, (int) 110003]} [code=0, state=23505]
FailedObject: org.jpab.node.Node@3a0ab1
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.narrow(DBDictionary.java:4821)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.DBDictionary.newStoreException(DBDictionary.java:4787)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:136)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.sql.SQLExceptions.getStore(SQLExceptions.java:78)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.PreparedStatementManagerImpl.flushAndUpdate(PreparedStatementManagerImpl.java:143)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.BatchingPreparedStatementManagerImpl.flushAndUpdate(BatchingPreparedStatementManagerImpl.java:81)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.PreparedStatementManagerImpl.flushInternal(PreparedStatementManagerImpl.java:99)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.PreparedStatementManagerImpl.flush(PreparedStatementManagerImpl.java:87)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.ConstraintUpdateManager.flush(ConstraintUpdateManager.java:550)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.ConstraintUpdateManager.flush(ConstraintUpdateManager.java:106)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.BatchingConstraintUpdateManager.flush(BatchingConstraintUpdateManager.java:59)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractUpdateManager.flush(AbstractUpdateManager.java:103)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.AbstractUpdateManager.flush(AbstractUpdateManager.java:76)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager.flush(JDBCStoreManager.java:751)
	at org.apache.openjpa.kernel.DelegatingStoreManager.flush(DelegatingStoreManager.java:131)
	... 12 more
Caused by: org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.ReportingSQLException: ERROR: duplicate key value violates unique constraint "node_pkey" {prepstmnt 25150543 INSERT INTO Node (id, changeCount, CHILD1_ID, CHILD2_ID) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?) [params=(int) 110001, (int) 0, (int) 110002, (int) 110003]} [code=0, state=23505]
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:257)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.wrap(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:233)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator.access$1000(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:70)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.LoggingConnectionDecorator$LoggingConnection$LoggingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(LoggingConnectionDecorator.java:1079)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(DelegatingPreparedStatement.java:285)
	at org.apache.openjpa.lib.jdbc.DelegatingPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(DelegatingPreparedStatement.java:285)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.JDBCStoreManager$CancelPreparedStatement.executeUpdate(JDBCStoreManager.java:1722)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.PreparedStatementManagerImpl.executeUpdate(PreparedStatementManagerImpl.java:267)
	at org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.PreparedStatementManagerImpl.flushAndUpdate(PreparedStatementManagerImpl.java:118)
	... 22 more